'Grinding is the common collective name for machining processes which utilize hard abrasive particles as the cutting medium. The grinding process of shaping materials is probably the oldest in existence, dating from the time prehistoric man found that he could sharpen his tools by rubbing them against gritty rocks. Without the capability to shape and sharpen implements by grinding, we might still be living in the Stone Age. 

Nowadays, grinding is a major manufacturing process which accounts for about 20–25% of the total expenditures on machining operations in industrialized countries. Society, as we know it, would be quite impossible without grinding. Almost everything that we use has either been machined by grinding at some stage of its production or has been processed by machines which owe their precision to abrasive operations. How could we sharpen cutting tools for turning, milling, and drilling without grinding? How could we manufacture the rolling bearings for machinery and vehicles? How could we produce disk-drive components for computers? 

Prehistoric man’s abrasive tool was natural sandstone, which contains grains of sand in a silicate bond matrix. Modern grinding wheels are fabricated by cementing together abrasive grains, usually from man-made materials, with a suitable bonding material. Each abrasive grain is a potential microscopic cutting tool. The grinding process uses thousands of abrasive cutting points simultaneously and millions continually. 

Grinding is traditionally regarded as a final machining process in the production of components requiring smooth surfaces and fine tolerances. There is no process which can compete with grinding for most precision machining operations, but the process is far from being confined to this type of work.'

- Excerpt from the book GRINDING TECHNOLOGY by Stephen Malkin and Changsheng Guo 

Types of Grinding Processes

    (based on machine tool capabilities)

• Surface grinding
• Profile grinding
• Gear grinding
• Cylindrical grinding

Core Research Topics

• Grindability of materials

• Process monitoring and control
• Process modeling & optimization
• Advanced materials
• Hybrid grinding processes

Surface Grinding (Image Source: United Grinding)

Grinding Magazines

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The following magazines will help the researchers to understand the latest industrial developments related to grinding (especially machine tools):

  1. Grinding & Surface Finishing

  2. Motion

  3. Grindaix 

  4. Cutting Tool Engineering

  5. Today's Medical Developments

  6. FAB Shop


"It can be stated unequivocally that because of the significant contributions by the pioneers and their associates, metal cutting and grinding research today is rich in its heritage and contents, and has contributed towards the improvement of manufacturing productivity. This monumental work, which became a classic, continues to inspire many researchers in this field even today."

      - Applied Mechanics Review,  Mar 1993, 46(3): 80-132


I am one among many others in the field of grinding, inspired by the works of Milton C Shaw, Stephen Malkin, and many other pioneers and their associates. With their inspiration, I continue my work on the mechanics, physics, and mathematics of the grinding process.

Milton C Shaw

Stephen Malkin

Ranga Komanduri


Robert S Hahn

W B Rowe


Click on the text to go to the corresponding webpage

Recent articles on Grinding (My Choice)

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Selected Keynotes and Review articles on Grinding

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A link to the selected backfiles (published before 1995)

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I am happy to provide a database of compelling articles related to grinding, and I believe that these articles will provide a context to the current thinking. (The list is not complete and the update is in progress)

Grinding Mechanisms
  1. The Theory of Grinding, with Reference to the Selection of Speeds in Plain and Internal Work (1915)

  2. Plastic Flow in the Cutting and Grinding of Materials (1954)

  3. The Effect of Grinding on the Fatigue Strength of Steels (1955)

  4. Precision Grinding Research: Part 1 (1960)

  5. Precision Grinding Research: Part 2 (1960)

  6. The Cutting Mechanism of Abrasive Grain: 1st Report (1960)

  7. An Analysis of the Abrasive Machining of Plane Surfaces (1965)

  8. Study on the Cutting Mechanism of Abrasive Grain: 4th Report (1967)

  9. Fracture of Abrasive Grain in Grinding (1967)

  10. Influence of grit size on the groove formation during sliding abrasion (1968)

  11. Measurement of Forces during Cutting with a Single Abrasive Grain (1968)

  12. Forces in Vertical Surface Grinding (1968)

  13. Forces and Force Ratios in Grinding With Coated Abrasives (1968)

  14. A Review of Theories of Metal Removal in Grinding (1969)

  15. The fracture of idealised abrasive particles (1969)

  16. ​The scraping action of conical tools (1969)

  17. The Effect of Parameter Variations in Precision Grinding (1970)

  18. An investigation into the mode of metal removal in the grinding process (1972)

  19. Effects of Grain Size and Operating Parameters on the Mechanics of Grinding (1972)

  20. The mechanics of grinding (1972)

  21. A Review of Some Aspects of Research into the Grinding Process: The Grinding Mechanism (1973)

Grinding Wheel - Properties, Dressing & Topography
  1. On Determining the Hardness of Grinding Wheels - 1 (1962)

  2. An Investigation of Grinding Wheel Cutting Edges (1964)

  3. The Role of Topography in the Cutting Performance of Abrasive Tools (1964)

  4. Influence of Dressing Conditions of Grinding Wheel on Grinding Fluid Performance in free Infeed Plunge Grinding (1967)

  5. Selection of Sampling Parameters for Modeling Grinding Wheels (1970)

  6. Grinding Wheel Elasticity (1971)

  7. Characterization of Abrasive Tools by Continuous Time Series (1973)

Grinding - Deflections, Chattering & Vibrations
  1. Analysis of the Rigidity of the Grinding Wheel-Workpiece-Grinding Machine System (1966)

  2. Surface Waves Generated on the Grinding Wheel (1968)

  3. Application of ultrasonic technique in grinding processes (1968)

  4. Grinding Process Instability (1969)

  5. Self-Excited Vibration in Cylindrical Grinding : Part 1, Experimental Study (1970)

  6. Self-Excited Vibration in Cylindrical Grinding : Part 2, Theoretical Study (1970)

  7. Factors Affecting Workpiece Deformation During Grinding (1975)

Grinding - Work Surface Topography & Integrity
  1. The Effect of Grinding on the Fatigue Strength of Steels (1955)

  2. Measurement and Control of the Residual Stress Produced by Grinding Operations (1967)

  3. Study of the Finish Produced in Surface Grinding: Part 1 (1967)

  4. Study of the Finish Produced in Surface Grinding: Part 2 (1967)

  5. Topography and Mechanical Properties of Ground Metal Surfaces(1967)

  6. An Examination of Grinding Detritus and Ground Surface (1969)

  7. The Effect of Parameter Variations in Precision Grinding (1970)

  8. A review of some aspects of research into the grinding process: Grinding high strength,heat and corrosion resistant alloys (1973)

  9. On the Surface Finish-Metal Removal Relationship in Precision Grinding (1973)

  10. Statistical analysis for the generating mechanism of ground surface roughness (1974)

  11. Statistical Analysis, Estimation, and Optimization of Surface Finish in the Grinding Process (1974)

Grinding Thermal Aspects (links not yet updated)
  1. Grinding Temperatures and Energy Partioning (1960)

  2. Thermal Analysis of the Grinding Process (1970)

  3. Thermal Aspects of Grinding - Energy Partition (1974)

  4. Thermal Aspects of Grinding - Surface Temperatures and Workpiece Burn (1974)

  5. On the Measurement of Surface Temperature in Grinding (1981)

  6. Abrasive Grain Temperature at the Beginning of a Cut in Fine Grinding (1988)

  7. Avoidance of Thermal Damage in Grinding and Prediction of the Damage Threshold (1988)

  8. A Simplified Approach to Workpiece Temperatures in Fine Grinding (1990)

  9. Studies on Mechanisms and Improvement of Workpiece Burn during Grinding of Titanium Alloys (1990)

  10. Analysis of Energy Partition in Grinding (1995)

  11. Analysis of Transient Temperatures in Grinding (1995)

  12. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer in Grinding (1995)

Grinding Wheel Wear & Swarf (links not yet updated)
  1. Influence of the Hardness of Abrasives on the Abrasive Wear of Metals (1966)

  2. Metallurgical Aspects of Wear (1966)

  3. Grinding and Abrasive Wear (1970)

  4. The Wear of Grinding Wheels - Attrious Wear (1971)

  5. The Wear of Grinding Wheels - Fracture Wear (1971)

  6. The Role of Grain Tip Radiusin Fine Grinding (1975)

  7. The Metal Transfer and Wear in Fine Grinding (1982)

  8. Grinding Swarf (1989)

  9. Monitoring of Grinding Wheel Wear (1992)

  10. An Investigation of the Chip types in Grinding (1995)

Grinding  - Cooling & Lubrication
  1. Grinding and Lubrication(1968)

  2. A review of some aspects of research into the grinding process: Grinding fluids (1973)

  3. A comparison of oil and water as grinding fluids in the creep feed grinding process (1984)

  4. Improvements in grinding steels by cryogenic cooling (1985)

  5. Assessment of the Cooling and Lubricative Properties of Grinding Fluids (1990)

  6. Environmental Aspects of Grinding Fluids (1991)

  7. Analysis of Fluid Flow through the Grinding Zone (1992)

  8. Grinding Fluid Application System Design (1995)